Causes of Male Infertility

Sperms defects or disorders

Sperm defects or disorders are the most common causes of male infertility. The vast majority of
cases of male infertility are due to a low sperm count (around 70% of cases). Often poor motility and a high rate of abnormal sperm are associated with a low sperm count. There are many reasons for sperm defects including hormonal imbalances, testicular failure, varicocele and infections but often a definite cause cannot be found.

When no sperm are found in the semen, testicular failure or failure to ejaculate may be the cause. Testicular failure may be either primary or secondary as a result of an injury, a late complication of mumps, or damage to the blood supply to the testicle. Alternatively, the problem may have a hormonal cause, with the pituitary gland failing to stimulate the testes to produce sperm.
The inability of the testes to produce sperm, despite hormonal stimulation, can be caused by undescended testes, cellular defects within the testes and congenital chromosomal abnormalities such as Klinefelter's syndrome.

Tubal damage – Vas deferencs, ejaculatory duct

Tubal damage caused by infections can prevent the sperm from getting into the semen as can retrograde ejaculation where the sperm passes into the bladder instead of being released through the penis into the vagina.

Immunological disorders

A very small percentage of men suffer from immunological problems that cause them to produce antibodies against their own sperm. This is the result of an autoimmune response to surgical interference, trauma or infection that is thought to be responsible for 10% of unexplained male infertility. The cause of this phenomenon however remains partly unclear.

In a number of cases of male infertility, the problem remains unexplained.

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