Menstrual Cycle


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The main feature of a woman's reproductive years is the menstrual cycle. This process, in which an egg (oocyte) ripens and is liberated every month ready for fertilization, and is controlled by an elaborate system involving the gonadotropins FSH and LH secreted by the pituitary gland which is in turn under control of neuroendocrine regulation which is an integration of multitude of physiological & psychological factors which affects the secretion of neurohormones & neurotransmitters & in turn secretion of GnRh from the hypothalamus which then results in synthesis & secretion of FSH & LH to act on the follicles present in the ovary.

Day one of the menstrual cycle is marked by the first day of the menstrual bleeds. The first phase of the cycle is called the follicular phase and lasts approximately 14 days. The second phase, after ovulation has taken place, is called the luteal phase.


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The number of eggs that a woman can produce in her lifetime is determined before birth. During her embryonic life, millions of special germ cells are produced in the ovaries. Many of them degenerate and the rest are ready to develop into mature eggs when the time comes.

Three months before ovulation, up to 300 eggs are recruited for growth and development. Each of the eggs is contained in a fluid-filled sac or 'follicle' that surrounds and nurtures it during development. About two weeks before ovulation, the secretion of FSH rises, stimulating the growth and development of the follicles. The growing follicles secrete increasing amounts of the hormone oestrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus (or endometrium) to thicken, and promotes changes in the cervical mucus that enable optimal penetration of the sperm.


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Dr. Patil’s Fertility and Endoscopy Clinic

Center for Assisted Reproductive Technology, Endoscopic Surgery and Andrology

No 1, Uma Admirality, First Floor, Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore - 560029
Ph: 080 - 41201357, 41462419 Mobile: 9945221622
E-Mail: drpatilsclinic@gmail.com

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